annotated bibliography 430

The annotated bibliography must include a minimum of 5 citations from the primary scientific literature. Your annotated bibliography must include complete, properly formatted citations and a description of the article, including how it relates to your topic statement. At least 2 citations should address the evolutionary concept (e.g., review articles, theoretical papers, history, or perspectives) and at least 2 should be for evidence or examples supporting the topic. One citation may be general background, such as natural history, on the focal species or system. Include your Topic Statement at the top of the Annotated Bibliography assignment.

my Topic will be on

  • The origin of adaptive radiation of aposematic coloration in poison dart frog ( family Dendrobatidae ) from other Anura that live in the sympatric
  • Keywords: aposematic coloration, Adaptive radiation, poison dart frog,
  • I have 3 Articles if it fit the requirement please used it AND PLEASE LOOK FOR 2 MORE
  • thanks ! please make sure the plagiarsim is less then 1%

Annotated Bibliography Rubric

Criteria Ratings Pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeCitations

10.0 to >9.0 pts


• Correctly formatted. • A minimum of 5 citations including 2 each for the concept and evidence or examples. • From peer-reviewed primary literature. (2 points per citation)

9.0 to >0 pts

Partial Credit

• Incorrectly formatted (-1 point per citation, up to 5). • Not peer-reviewed source (-1 point per citation, up to 5). • Fewer than required (-2 points per missing citation)

10.0 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeAnnotations

40.0 to >39.0 pts


• Clearly describes the article, including hypotheses, methods, results, and conclusions (4 point per citation). • Relevance to topic statement is well supported (4 point per citation).

39.0 to >0 pts

Partial Credit

• Missing one of the required components (-1 point per component per citation) • Citation lacks relevance or relevance is not clearly stated. (-1 to 4 points per citation)

40.0 pts

Example: Vestigial wings and the evolution of flightlessness in Galapagos Island cormorants (Phalacrocorax harrisi)

Keywords: vestigiality, flightlessness, Galapagos Island cormorants

McNab, B.K., 1994. Energy conservation and the evolution of flightlessness in birds. The American Naturalist, 144(4), pp.628-642.

The author examined the hypothesis that energy conservation contributes to the evolution of flightlessness in birds by comparing the factors correlated with basal metabolic rate in flighted and flightless rails and ducks. They found support for their hypothesis in flightless birds, except penguins, which use their wings for locomotion in water. The authors concluded that a lack of selective pressure for flight (lack of predators) combined with a high metabolic demand to maintain flight capability, contributes to vestigiality (reduction of wings and pectoral muscles) in environments where resources are limited. This article is relevant to my topic statement because it addresses a hypothesis about how flightlessness and vestigial wings evolved in birds, more generally

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